Asad Bin Furat, Liberating Scholars of the Sicilian Islands, Italy

TIMES OF ISLAM, TANJUNG ENIM - In 212 H on the mainland of Sicily, Italy one of the commanders gave a speech in front of 10,000 Muslim soldiers. His fiery speech encouraged the mujahideen to reply Jannah to the martyrs. His age approaching head seven did not reduce the slightest bit of his enthusiasm.

When the battle ensued, he was able to tear apart the enemy forces like a wounded lion. In accordance with the name "Al-Asad", the enemy forces were captured until victory fell in the hands of Muslims. Finally, after waiting for 75 years, Sicilians succeeded in being freed by the Muslims under the commander of Asad bin Al-Furat.

Get to know Asad bin Al-Furat

Being a Muslim who is experienced in one field is a matter of pride. Because with that expertise, he is able to contribute to da'wah and struggle. Especially being someone who is multi-talented like the figure we are going to discuss at this time, he is a cleric, faqih, muhadits, mujahid, commander of the mujahidin and an admiral and a judge, who are firm in the matter of sunnah and bid'ah. The journey of his life is always on the path of God to pick up death.

He was the emir of the mujahidin Abu Abdullah Asad bin Al-Furat bin Sinan. Born at 142 H in the City of Harran. Despite being born on the Asian mainland, Asad grew and developed in Africa following his father, Al-Furat bin Sinan. His father was a mujahideen commander who made an expedition to Morocco with his troops at 144 H.

Asad and his father settled in Qairawan. In this city, he grew to become a figure of lovers of Science and the Koran. From childhood he memorized the Koran until at the age of eighteen he was appointed to be a teacher of the Book of Allah.

After the knowledge of the Koran was exhausted, Asad began studying ulum syar'iyah to faqih in the science of jurisprudence. He liked the discussion of furu'iyah matters in jurisprudence and thought problems at the Abu Hanifah school until meeting Ali bin Ziad. It was this character who introduced Asad with the madzab of Imam Malik bin Anas in Morocco and played to him the book Al-Muwatha. Asad began to be interested and explore the Maliki madzab and continued his long journey to seek knowledge eastward in 172 H.

Arriving in the City of the Prophet

The spirit of Talibul ilmi made Asad determined to study Al-Muwatha 'from the author. Imam Malik bin Anas divided Al-Muwatha's teaching hours into three groups

The first group is the residents of Medina
The second group is the Egyptians
Group three is free from anyone other than two groups one and two.
Imam Malik personally saw the signs of Asad who were so eager to seek knowledge. So, the author of Al-Muwatha 'included Asad in the second group with the Egyptians. However, Asad's enthusiasm was more exciting than what Imam Malik imagined. The Imam also gave a special hour for Al-Furat's son until the entire contents of Al-Muwatha had been heard to him. Asad also felt that if he lingered in Medina, he would lose the opportunity to study other sciences out there. So, after he finished studying Al-Muwatha ', his feet stepped towards Iraq.

In Iraq, Asad met with senior students of Abu Hanifah, including famous hadith narrators, Muhammad bin Hasan Asy-Syaibani. He also met Qadhi Abu Yusuf, also including senior Abu Hanifah students who were quite well known. Begin Asad studies the Hanafi madzab and mostly listens to the piety in the hadith. Asad felt that he had gained a lot of new knowledge from Muhammad bin Hasan and he had written many famous problems in the Hanafi school.

Asad continued his thalabul ilmi journey in Iraq between listening to hadith and studying fiqh until 179 H. In this year Imam Malik died and this sad news spread to Iraq. All those who have heard the hadith from Imam Malik flock to takziah. Asad felt devastated because he could not accompany the Imam in the moment of his last breath.

Asad traveled to Egypt with two of Imam Malik's well-known and alim students; Ibn Wahab and Ibnul Qasim. Initially Asad approached Ali Ibnul Wahab, he offered a book which he wrote which contained problems in the Hanafi school. Asad asked Ibnu Wahab to answer all these problems according to the Maliki madzab. However, Ibn Wahab refused and separated himself from it. Furthermore, Asad went to Ibn Qasim with the same intention.

In contrast to Ibnul Wahab's response, Ibnul Qasim explained clearly the issue in the Maliki madzab and at the same time taught about ushul and furu. In fact, Ibnul Qasim also pointed out several references to answer the problem in the book Al-Murunah or Al-Asadiyah until the first reference to Maliki jurisprudence in Morocco. Finally, Asad returned to the city of Qairawan at 181 AH after traveling in search of knowledge that was quite difficult to move from Makkah, Madinah, Baghdad, Kufah and Fustat. This tiring journeymaking Asad a great ulama in Morocco and becoming a priest while reaching the rank of mujtahid.

Scientific Activities in Morocco

After a heavy journey to study in various countries, Asad returned to Qairawan. Arriving in the city where he first recognized this knowledge, he became a beacon of knowledge in North Africa in the field of hadith and fiqh with the existence of two madrassas; Hanafiah and Malikiyah. Asad sat in the Jami 'Aqabah mosque to receive people who came to study and ask questions from various regions. The whole of Morocco knows the fame of Asad as a great scholar to explore Andalusia.

Asad has reached the degree of mujatahid, so he cannot just hold on to one opinion. He is concerned with what is appropriate to be his own ijtihad adhering to the words of Ahlu Medina (Malikiyah) and Iraqi Experts (Hanafiyah) and what he thinks is true. One time he was sitting in an assembly and delivering the words of the Ahlu of Iraq, then there was one of the Sheikhs who sat with him on the prayer of Maliki and said, "Yes Abi Abdillah, turn on the second lantern". Asad understood the intent of those words and explained the problem with the words of Ahlu Madinah or the Maliki madzab.

Asad, the Amir of the Mujahideen

Asad is not the type of ulama who hides behind the book alone, he is also known as a cleric who jumps into the field of jihad fi sabilillah. He inherited a love for jihad from his father, Al-Furat bin Sinan who was also an emir of the mujahideen Harran. Since he was a child, Asad had been brought to jihad, so little Asad grew in the nuances of thick jihad. A heroic spirit, an adventurer has been attached to his chest from a young age even though he was not directly involved in the battle.

Africa, especially Tunisia is under the authority of the Aghlabid daulah which has become an independent state since 184 H. However, this daulah remains under the Abbasid Daula. At the beginning, it was launched the call for jihad and the spread of Islamic da'wah until finally their views at that time were fixed on the Mediterranean sea such as Sicily, Corsica, Serdanih and others, but the focus was then on Sicily.

Liberation of the island of Sicily

Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean sea with great wealth. The island is famous as a grain producing area: Olive (olives) and grapes. Geographically, Sicily also has the potential to become the center of world trade. So, since the time of the best friend's effort to free the island has been carried out, then continued to the era of Abdullah bin Saad, Muawiyah bin Hadij, Uqbah bin Nafi ', ​​Atha' bin Rafi 'and Abdurrahman bin Habib in 135 H.

However, at that time there was an internal dispute in Morocco between the Arabs and the bar bar people. While at that time the Muslims were busy jihad against enemies who took advantage of these internal disputes. This enemy attacks the Moroccan coast in the African region. This attack actually made Muslims in unity to fight Byzantine aggression.

That period in Sicily was in turmoil and a dispute between the Byzantine Emperor, Michael II and one of the Byzantine admirals named Euphemius. Long story short, Euphemius, who in Arabic transliteration called Femi, fled from Byzantium to Morocco. Femi met with Ziyadatullah, Amir Aghlabid to submit a collaboration. The Byzantine runaway wanted to take revenge and restore his power in Sicily.

Ziyadatullah considered this was the right time to liberate Sicily. This brilliant idea was a little hampered by the peace agreement that had been agreed upon. So, the emir asked two famous judges at the time, Abu Mahriz Muhammad and Asad bin Al-Furat. Abu Mahriz suggested continuing to respect the agreement with the Byzantines and checking the authenticity of the story from Femi. Whereas Asad said he supported Amir's plan to jihad to liberate Sicily. Asad explained that the treaty with the Byzantines had been canceled because they had imprisoned thousands of Muslims and Arabs. Asad added this was the right time to liberate Sicily and bring it to the fold of Islam.

Finally, with optimism and conviction Ziyadatullah called for jihad to liberate Sicily. This exclamation was greeted with an uproar and the ships were immediately prepared to cross to the island of Sicily. The big homework after that is who deserves to lead this big army? A decision that made Asad shocked was when Ziyadatullah appointed him as commander. His position as a qadhi remained and did not change, instead he received an additional mandate as commander of the army. This is the first time this has happened in Arab history and Islam, a Muslim doublesua positions as qadhi and warlords.

Ziyadah chose Asad for reasons of experience and piety. It was hoped that the figure of Asad could be an example for the soldiers because at first this Al-Furat son was known as a resilient figure and a great scholar. Asad also agreed to this mandate even though at that time he stepped on the head of seven.

The forces commanded by Asad consisted of Arabs, Barbarians, Spanish Muslims from Crete and some Persians. The move by Asad to join the army was also followed by other ulama while at the same time increasing the justification that this step of jihad was truly blessed by the existing scholars. According to some information, this force consists of 10,000 mujahids, 700 horsemen and 100 ships. The Islamic Fleet moved on Saturday, 15 Rabiul Awal 212 H to the south of Sicily. After these forces reached the port of the city of Sousse, Asad gathered the soldiers for advice and motivation before entering the battlefield. This is one of Asad's memorable speeches ...

"There is no god but Allah, and there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah. O my troops, I swear! My father and grandfather pointed at me to say this command, even I never knew that something had been experienced by someone. This title is my achievement with a pen, not with a sword. I support you not to be discouraged or exhausted for a moment in seeking knowledge! Seek, Keep, Develop, Be Consistent, and Be patient with all hardships! You will be guaranteed (get) a glorious place in this life, and luck in the hereafter. "Said Asad aloud.

In his speech, he clearly said that he had never touched a sword during his lifetime. Asad not only whipped up the mujahidin's enthusiasm to fight the enemy, but also provided stimulants to expand their knowledge of war in Islam. So, not only became a mujahidin who was strong in military science, but also understood Islamic ethics in warfare. This is one of the goals why Ziyadatullah appointed Asad bin Al-Furat to be the supreme commander.

Free of Sicily and the First Islamic Trail there

After Asad ended his speech, Femi came to offer assistance to the commander to free Sicily. However, Asad refused the assistance and preferred to put his trust in Allah as the Prophet rejected Jewish assistance at the Battle of Uhud.

The first battle against Balata, the mujahideen got their first victory. Balata immediately fled to Castrogiovanni then to Calabria and died there. In this first battle Asad held his sword tightly and swung as hard as he could while qiraatul quran and encouraged his army. Because of the large number of enemies that died because of their swords, the blood gave rise to the river to inundate the ankles. The enormity of this first battle proves that Asad's determination was so burning even though he was of age.

After this victory, the journey continues to enter the city of Sarquosa and Balrum. To conquer Balrum, Asad surrounded him and tried to block it from getting outside help. Even Qadhi seklaigus the commander succeeded in burning the aid ship from Byzantium which was destined for Balrum. In the end Balrum fell and was controlled by Muslims.

The victory of Muslims is welcomed with joy. However, not long after the outbreak of cholera struck the mujahideen, including the highest commander of the Muslim army. Many victims fell and Asad bin Al-Furat was martyred on the month of Sya'ban 213 H. The fierce battle did not make him lose his life, instead death picked up when the victory was in hand.

Hopefully we can take lessons about the struggle and tenacity of Asad bin Al-Furat in demanding knowledge and determination to step in the world of jihad. Wallahu A'lam Bi Shawab.
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