Know The Origin Of Shia

TIMES OF ISLAM, TANJUNG ENIM - Shia according to the etymology of Arabic means the defender and followers of someone. Besides that, it also means every people who gather on a matter. According to the Shari'a terminology, the Shia means those who claim that Ali ibn Abu Talib was more important than all his companions and more entitled to be the caliph of the Muslims after the death of the Prophet ([1]).

In essence, Imamat is a worldview for the Shiites. And as a continuation of this ideology, the first, second, and third caliphs, namely Abu Bakr, Umar, and Usman were illegitimate Caliphs, traitors, sinners, because they took office and the rank of caliph without the truth from Ali. Therefore, the Shia always berated the Companions of the Prophet. So that Abu Bakr and Umar were likened to Pharaoh and Hamman, even they were forgiving and cursing the friends in prayer. Among the prayers they offered were prayers for the cursing of Abu Bakr and Umar and their two daughters Aisyah and Hafsah. The great prayer is known as prayer (صَنَمَيْ قُرَيْشٍ) which means two idols of the Quraysh ([2]). What they meant by the two idols of the Quraysh was Abu Bakr and Umar. And strangely they preach that this prayer is a prayer read by Ali in his qunut. But of course this is a lie and a lie because it is not narrated with the authentic sanad of Ali.

Imam Ali had eight wives after the death of Fatimah al-Zahra, and had 36 children (18 men and 18 women). His two famous sons Hasan and Husain were born to the children of the Prophet Muhammad (Fatimah).

Ali's descendants through Fatimah were known as Syarif or Sayyid, which were honorary titles in Arabic, Sharif means nobility and Sayyid means sir. As direct descendants of Muhammad, they were respected by Sunnis and Shiites.

Boy girl
Hasan Zainab al-Kubra
Husain Zainab al-Sughra
Muhammad bin Hanafiah Umm Kaltum
Abbas al-Akbar (nicknamed Abu Fadl) Ramlah al-Kubra
Abdullah al-Akbar Ramlah al-Sughra
Ja'far al-Akbar Nafisah
Uthman al-Akbar Ruqaiyah al-Sughra
Muhammad al-Ashghar Ruqaiyah al-Kubra
Abdullah al-Ashghar Maimunah
Abdullah (nicknamed Abu Ali) Zainab al-Sughra
Aun Ummu Hani
Yahya Fatima al-Sughra
Muhammad al-Ausath Umamah
Uthman al-Ashghar Khadijah al-Sughra
Abbas al-Ashghar Umm al-Hasan
Ja'far al-Ashghar Umm Salamah
Umar al-Ashghar Hamamah
Umar al-Akbar Umm Kiram

In the cross-history of the Caliph Abu Bakr (11-13 AH), so also in the days of the Caliph Usman (13-23 H) Shiite movements and understandings were not so prominent, because that era was the era closest to the time of the Prophet. The people are friends of the closest Prophet who are knowledgeable and not easily influenced by heretical understanding. the best friends and the majority of Muslims at that time did not accept this Shiite understanding, let alone the understanding that would oppose Abu Bakr and Umar. They argued that the appointment of the caliph Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman was legitimate, and the Prophet Muhammad had no intention of who would replace him. They argued that the appointment of the way of worship at the meeting of the Saqifah of the Sa'idah was in accordance with the guidance of Islam. When Umar was replaced by Usman, (25-35 AH), Usman was not only busy arranging state and royal dictatorships, but he was busy collecting holy verses, until he succeeded in making the Koran in a Mushaf which until now was called the Ottoman Manuscripts. Then in the five years leading up to the end of the Usman government, Shiite understanding began to emerge and few got market as well. So the anti-Usman ideology flared up and anti-caliphs were the first. They say that those who have the right to become caliphs throughout the ages after the death of the Prophet are Ali alone. As for Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman they were the usurper of the Caliphate and illegitimate.

Therefore, in tracing the emergence of followers of Imam Ali, known as the Shi'a, it is necessary to look at two things, namely the political aspects and aspects of aqeedah.

First: Politics

The appearance of Shia from a political point of view began after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, and the culmination was after the murder of Uthman bin ‘Affan. During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar, the early days of the Uthman Caliphate namely in the early years of his office, the Muslims were united, there were no sharp disputes. Then at the end of the Uthman Caliphate there were various events that resulted in the emergence of divisions, a group of makers of slander and tyranny emerged, they killed Uthman, so after that the Muslims were divided.

The events of Usman's murder led to the emergence of a dispute between Mua'wiyah and Ali, where the Mu'awiyah accused Ali of being the brain of Usman's murder. Ali was appointed as the fourth caliph by the Islamic community in Medina. The second dispute also continued infighting for the leadership position of the Muslims after Mu'awiyah refused to be taken down from his position as governor of Syria. Ali-Muawiyah conflict is the starting point of a major political conflict that divides people into groups of schools of thought.

The political crisis since the appointment of Ali bin Abi Talib became caliph and followed by the rejection of Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan towards the existence of Imam Ali's Caliphate, naturally aroused political tensions from both sides of the war which led to the Siffin war. This Siffin war was the culmination of the Muslim political crisis. In history it is said to be a great slander "al-fitnah al-kubra". From this slander also in the future continues to develop and enlarge in describing the process and the long journey of the political history of Muslims from generation to generation between Sunnis and Shiites.

In history, the attitude of Ali who accepted the offer of arbitration (negotiations) from Mu'awiyah in the Siffin war was not approved by some of his followers who eventually withdrew his support and turned hostile towards Ali. This group is then called the Khawarij (people who leave). With the motto of La Hukma Illa lillah (there are no laws other than Allah's law) they consider decisions cannot be obtained through arbitration but from God. They labeled the people involved in arbitration as infidels because they had committed "big sins" so they were worthy of being killed ([3]).

In its development the doctrine of Imamat was made by the Shia as a great belief or belief, so as to give a great impression and influence in the system of government and leadership, and studies of Islamic aqeedah and theology, fiqh and ushul fiqh, mu'amalah, interpretations and hadith. So that almost all the verses of the Koran and the Hadith of the Prophet are related to leadership, guardianship, judgment and so on, they enter the values ​​of Imamat into them and are interpreted as the concept of Imamah.

This indicates that the theological problems in Islam originated from political problems, thus giving a great influence and impression on the division of Muslims, it can even influence the social fabric of society. And sometimes the community itself is directly involved in the political realm, so that various social groups and levels in society compete to make their political choices come to power. Thus, the initial problems between Sunnis and Shiites actually originated in past history which was very political, not in terms of Islamic theology.

At present the continuation of the concept of Imamat known as "Wilayah al-Faqih" is the latest concept of the Shiite Imamiyah group in Iran, as an alternative to Imam al-Gha'ibah, as a result of attacks carried out on them. Because one of the basic teachings in the Shia is to acknowledge the existence of the Imam at all times, whose task is to solve all the problems of the people. However, because the priest did not appear, the system of "al-Faqih region" appeared.

In connection with the al-Faqih Region theory, in fact the Shia Imamiyah themselves differed on their existence. In the sense that some Shia scholars do not recognize the validity of the theory, such as Shurth Murtaza al-Ansori and Sheikh al-Sayyid al-Khuu'i, these two famous Shia scholars challenged and denied the area of ​​al-Faqih, precisely they were very loyal waiting for the presence of the supernatural imam. Therefore, there is an interesting matter to be observed that the actual embodiment of the concept is indirectly a form of criticism of the concept of Imam al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, which has not appeared until now. Because the supernatural role of Imam Ma'sum is not easy and very essential, that is: upholding hudud and collecting zakat. Even the most problematic is that some Shiite Imamiyah followers feel that they are not obliged to perform Friday prayers because of the absence of imam al-Ghaib al-Muntazar. So this is what Imam Khumaini was worried about so that he defended the concept of "al-Faqih region" in various works of his book, and especially "al-Hukumah al-Islamiyah".

Second: Aqeedah

The emergence of the Shia in aqeedah, which later in its development was extreme and misguided, was marked by the involvement of someone named Abdullah bin Saba. He was a Jew from San'a Yemen who came to Medina then pretended to be loyal to Islam at the end of the Caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan. Even though he was the one who actually pioneered the bloody coup and carried out the murder of the Caliph Uthman bin Affan. He was also the originator of the Shiite aqeedah which was later excessive in culturing (glorifying) Ali ibn Abi Talib.

Abdullah bin Saba 'introduced his teachings from hiding to blatant. He then gathered a crowd, announcing that the leadership (imamah) after the Prophet Muhammad should fall into the hands of Ali bin Abi Talib because of his visitk the Prophet.

Among the misguided and misleading issues that were disseminated by Abdullah bin Saba 'to divide the Muslims at that time included:

That Ali had received a will as a substitute for the Prophet.
The priest must be carried by the Best of Man.
That Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. were wrongdoers, because they had seized Ali's khilafah after the death of the Prophet. Muslims at that time membai'at the three khilafah declared unbelievers.
That the Messenger of Allah will return to the world before the Day of Judgment, as is the belief in the return of Prophet Isa.
That Ali was the creator of all creatures and givers of sustenance.
That Ali did not die, but remained alive in space.
Lightning is his voice when anger and lightning are his scam. That the spirit of Al-Quds reincarnated into the Shia Imams.
And others ([4]).
From a number of these heresies, imam al Naubakhti, a Shiite cleric who was prominent in his book "Firaq Al Shia" said that Imam Ali had wanted to kill Abdullah bin Saba 'because of the slander and lies he spread. Namely, consider Ali as a god and claim to be a prophet. However, this plan did not become because no one agreed with this action. Then in exchange Abdullah bin Saba 'was banished to Mada'in, the capital of Iran at that time ([5]).

During this time many Shia followers considered Ali as God. When he learned about the appearance of this sect, Ali burned them and made trenches at the front door of the Bani Kandah mosque to burn them. Imam Bukhari narrated in his saheeh book, from Ibn Abbas he said, "Once upon a time Ali fought and burned the zindiq people (the Shiites who claimed Ali). Suppose I did it I would not burn them because the Prophet had forbidden torture as the torment of Allah (burned), but I would have beheaded their necks, because the Prophet said:

مَنْ بَدَّلَ دِيْنَهُ فَاقْتُلُوْهُ

"Whoever changes his religion (apostasy) then kill him". (HR Bukhari, no: 2794)
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