The Law Of Using The Tools Of Eating And Drinking Infidels And Polytheists

TIMES OF ISLAM, TANJUNG ENIM - عن أبي ثعلبة الخشني - رضي الله عنه - قال: أتيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم, فقلت: يا رسول الله, إنا بأرض قوم أهل كتاب, نأكل في آنيتهم? قَالَ: إِنْ وَجَدْتُمْ غَيْرَ آنِيَتِهِمْ ، فَلاَ تَأْكُلُوا فِيهَا. فَإِنْ لَمْ تَجِدُوا ، فَاغْسِلُوهَا وَكُلُوا فِيهَا.

Abu Tsa'labah al-Khusanniy said, "I went to the Messenger of Allāh bertanya and asked him," O Messenger of Allah, in fact we live in a book of experts. Can we eat with their utensils? "He said," If you find other tools, do not eat with their utensils. If you don't find anything other than theirs, wash the tool and use it to eat. "

Takhrij Hadith
The above hadith narrated by Imam Tirmidhi in his Sunan book, Chapter "Using the tools of the idolaters." The status of this hadith is muttafaqun aih alaihi (agreed upon by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim). Because it is mentioned in Shahih al-Bukhari in Chapter "Hunting with arrows"; and Chapter "Magi's Tools and those made from animal carcasses". Imam Muslim narrated in Chapter "Hunting with dogs that have been tamed." Only the sanad is longer than the history of Imam Tirmidhi.

And there is another history, namely from Imam Abu Daud; and the sound of the hadith, "Indeed, we are neighbors with the scribes, and they cook pork in their pots, and drink khamers with their jars."

So the Messenger of Allah said, "If you can find anything else, then eat and drink using it. And if you don't find it except only theirs, then wash it first with water, then eat and drink it with that place. "

Biography of narrators
Abu Tsa'labah al-Khusanniy is a famous friend, and more famous for his vocation. It was a friend who participated in Bai'at Ridhwan and first converted to Islam than Abu Hurairah. Even though he was not present at the Khaibar war, the Prophet gave him a part of the ganimah. That's because he sent him to preach in the midst of his people who were in Sham. Many of his people who converted to Islam he took to meet the Prophet Muhammad.

Many scholars' differences about who Abu Tsa'labah really is. Yahya ibn Ma'in, Imam Ahmad, Ibnul Madini, Ibn Sa'ad and al-Bukhari further confirmed that his name was Jurhum bin Nasyim, from Bani Huysain. This family has long been domiciled in the land of Sham, precisely on the territory of Syria. Many Arab nations have long lived there and embraced the Christian religion. Abu Tsa'labah lived until the time of the Muawiya Caliphate. He was not involved in the Shiffin war conflict between Ali and Muawiyah. He died in the year 75 in the position of prostration when praying. (See, Siyar A'lam an-Nubala ', 7 / 50-51).

Digest of Hadith
The hadith above contains several lessons. Are as follows:

Khamer's unclean argument. The law of origin of furniture belonging to pagans and polytheists is sacred.
The People of the Book are the people whom Allah sent down the Torah and the Gospel upon them. They are Jews and Christians (Indonesian people know him better than Christianity).
Book experts who settled in Sham at the time of friends used to cook and consume pork. They are also used to drinking khamer using their jars.
Should not use eating utensils and wear clothes belonging to people whose lives are familiar with unclean objects.
You can be neighbors with infidels, because this part of you is with them. As for the one-stop living together, it should be avoided based on authentic traditions.
Can buy and sell transactions with infidels. Either in the form of goods with goods, or money with money, or money with goods while not usury and according to Islamic rules; and useful and cause concern for human life, especially Muslims.
It is compulsory for Muslims to be careful of goods produced and imported by unbelievers and polytheists, until it is proven to be the halal and sanctity of their goods and there is no doubt. This is based on the principles of fiqh, "Leave those who doubt you and turn to those who do not make you doubt."
The law uses tableware and clothing for pagans
If anyone asks, "I am served eating and drinking tools and equipment belonging to Christians, or Buddhists or Hindus. Can I use it to eat and drink, for ablution 'or take a shower?'

So in this matter, the ulamas' schools of thought differed on whether the eating and drinking equipment belonging to the infidels was punished purely because they saw the law of origin of their objects? Or was it condemned to be unclean because it saw the outward appearance of unbelievers who did not like to guard themselves from unclean objects such as carcasses, urine and urine?

If it is new and has not been used by pagans and polytheists, based on the ijma 'the law may be used and used. As long as the ingredients are sacred and notI am unclean, and not of gold or silver.

Used goods of pagans and polytheists and previously used to be unclean or unclean in them, the law is unclean based on ijma '. It should not be used unless washed first and is completely clean from unclean based on ijma '. An example is a glass that they use to drink beer. Then it should not be used by Muslims until it is washed first until it is completely clean. (See, Syarah Zadil Mustaqni ’Syaikh Asy-Syanqithi, 6/6).

When not getting tools or furniture other than the former belonging to an infidel used for unclean objects, the scholars differed:

First, the Hanafi School of thought argues that it is used and is recommended to wash it first.
Imam Muhammad ibn Hasan ash-Syaibani said, "It is necessary to eat and drink in the utensils of the idolaters before he washed them. Even so, it is still permissible to eat and drink on these utensils if they know they are not unclean. And if he knows it is unclean, it will be forbidden until it is cleansed first. Details like this also apply to the clothes of ex-infidels if we wish to use prayer. "(See, al-Bahru ar-Raq Ibn Najim, 8/232; and see also al-Mabsuth, 24/27 and Umdatu al-Qâri, 21 / 96).

Secondly, the Maliki School of Religion said it was necessary to wash it first if it was their former. It is not necessary to wash if it's new and hasn't been used.
Imam Ibn Abdil Barri said, "And why not drink by using the utensils of the disbelievers entirely if they have been washed and cleansed, and as long as they are not made of gold, or silver, or pigskin." (See, al-Kafi fii Fiqhi Ahlil Medina, p. 439).

According to Imam Malik, the tools and clothes of former infidels must be washed in three conditions. First, if it is definitely unclean. Second, if it is suspected of being unclean. Third, if it is doubtful sacred. In these three conditions, it must be washed according to Imam Malik.

And it does not have to be washed in two conditions. First, if the clothes and tools prove to be holy. And second, if it is expected to be sacred. "(It is concluded from Hasyiyah ad-Dasuqi, 1/61).

Third, according to the Madhhab Syafi'i tidak makruh, it is used if it is believed to be sacred.
It is not distinguished whether it is used by the infidels of the People of the Book or other infidels such as the Majusi. Or ex-infidels who believe in being unclean as part of their religious rituals, then in the strongest opinion in the Shafi'i school is not unclean. But if he is not sure it is holy, then it is necessary to use it absolutely until it is washed first. (See, al-Hawi al-Kabir, 1/81; al-Majmu ', 1 / 263-264).

Fourth, the Hambali school of thought argues that it may be used until it is found to be unclean.
There is no distinction between the People of the Book or other religions. And this famous opinion in the Hambali school is exactly like the Shafi'i school.

The fifth opinion does not distinguish. It must be washed if it belongs to polytheists who are not lawful, such as majus and atheists. It is not obligatory to be washed if it belongs to the Book of Experts who have been sacrificed. (See, al-Mughni, 1/62).
Of the five opinions above, it is concluded that opinions that are closer to the postulate are opinions that say makruh. Because the Abu Tsa'labah hadith above contains the prohibition of the Apostle to use tools belonging to pagans and polytheists, and orders to wash them if no other tools are found.

However, because there are other saheeh traditions which explain the actions of the Prophet and his companions who once cleansed, ate and drank by using vessels belonging to pagans and polytheists, they were believed to be chastity so they did not need to wash them. So the prohibition on the hadith of Abu Tsa'abah is interpreted as makruh, and the order to wash it into mustahab (disunnahkan) law. And there is no proposition that shows the specificity of the Abu Tsa'labah hadith.

However, a Muslim should maintain that he is not reckless to use utensils, clothes and utensils to drink ex-infidels as long as there are others, except for emergencies when there are no items but only those of the infidels. Wallaahu a'lam.
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