Ihsan and Itqan in Charity

ISL4M.COM, TANJUNG ENIM - Among us often hear ihsan and itqan words.

عن شداد بن أوس, قال ثنتان حفظتهما عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم, قال: إن الله كتب الإحسان على كل شيء, فإذا قتلتم فأحسنوا القتلة, وإذا ذبحتم فأحسنوا الذبح, وليحد أحدكم شفرته, فليرح ذبيحته

From Abu Al Ash'ats from Syaddad bin Aus he said, "Two things that I always remember from the Messenger of Allah , he said:" Verily Allah has obliged to always be kind to every thing, therefore if one of you is going to kill, then kill it in the best way. And let one of you sharpen the knife and make it comfortable for the animal to slaughter. "

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: إن اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُحِبُّ إِذَا عَمِلَ أَحَدُكُمْ عَمَلًا أَنْ يُتْقِنَهُ

From Ayesha رضي الله عنها, said the Messenger of Allah : "Allah ʽazza wa jalla likes if one of you does a charity itqan."

The first hadith is narrated by Imam Muslim in Muslim Sahih, Kitab al-Saidu wa al-Dzibâhu wa Ma Yu'kalu Min al-Hayawâni, No. 1955. The second hadith is narrated by Imam At-Tabrânî, in al-Muʽjam al-Awsat, No. 897, and Imam Baihaqi in Sya’bu al-Îmân, No. 5312.

Explanation of Hadith

"سحسان" "Ihsan" is mashdar from the word حَسُنَ ـ حُسُنُ ـ حُسْنا with wazan أفْعَلَ ـ يُفْعِلُ افْعالا, namely أحْسَنَ ـ يَحْسِنُ ـ احْسانا, which means to do good, make perfect, or carry out as perfectly as possible.

Imam al-Nawawi رحمه الله included the first hadith as one of the basic hadiths of religion, relating to the perfection of the entire teachings of Islam. Namely there are demands to do charity in the best way. Among them is by calculating things that can perfect the charity, which is reflected in the direction of the Prophet  to ensure the sharpness of the knife before slaughtering.

The second hadith includes the famous hadith that is widely known to the public. Although this hadith is not found in the text, the Sheikh al-Albana validates it in the genealogy of al-Ahadith al-Sahihah.

"الإتقان" is the word mashdar which comes from تَقَّنَ with wazan أفْعَلَ ـ يُفْعِلُ افْعالا, namely أتْقَنَ - يُتْقِنُ ـ اتْقانا, which means perfecting, or doing it perfectly. This word is mentioned by Allah تعالى in Q.S. 27:88, which exemplifies the perfection of the creation of nature:

صُنۡعَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِيٓ أَتۡقَنَ كُلَّ شَيۡءٍۚ إِنَّهُۥ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَفۡعَلُونَ ٨٨

"(That is) God's creation that perfectly creates everything. Indeed, He is Exalted for what you do. "

Practically, Ihsan can be interpreted as an attitude to do a charity by paying attention to things that can improve it, while itqan means doing charity effectively and efficiently, so that it can be resolved optimally, in terms of process and time.

Ibrah hadith

In these two hadiths are covered two basic concepts of doing charity in Islam, namely ihsan and itqan. Alloy both gave birth to the professionalism that sustains success in the world and the hereafter.

Among the ihsan and itqan forms of charity, can be extracted from the Qur'an and hadith as follows:

Done by calculation

There is an important message in carrying out a charity in the Prophet's order صلى الله عليه وسلم in performing slaughter, namely by ensuring the sharpness of the knife. Namely, before committing charity, careful preparation is taken into account, including anticipating obstacles that can arise in the process of carrying out the practice. This is so that it does not cause damage, failure, or even hurt others. If in muamalah with animals we are instructed to take into account and make every step smarter, because it is feared that it can hurt the animal, so how should attitude in dealing with fellow humans?

Taking into account the possibilities of implementing a charity is also illustrated in the hadith:

اغتنم خمسا قبل خمس: شبابك قبل هرمك, وصحتك قبل سقمك, وغناءك قبل فقرك, وفراغك قبل شغلك, وحياتك قبل موتك

"Take advantage of five things before five things (other): the time of your youth before your age, your health before your illness, your time before your destiny, and your leisure before you are busy." (History of Al-Hakim, validated Adz-Dhahabi, according to Bukhari and Muslim conditions).

This hadith shows that the five things mentioned in this hadith, namely young, healthy, rich and time, are the main capital in achieving something, which for that needs to be presented, prepared, maintained and managed with good planning, so that it can produce something optimal .

Attempted to complete

Among the ihsan and itqan forms of charity is that the charity is sought to be completed. As the word of God تعالى in Q.S. 94: 7: فَإِذَا فَرَغۡتَ فَٱنصَبۡ ٧

"Then when you have finished (from something), still work hard (for other matters). "

Imam Athabari mentioned several interpretative opinions about this verse, among which is that what is meant is jihad, if it is finished, then return to the focus of worship and prayer. Another opinion states that this is related to world affairs, so that after finishing, they are serious in worshiping. This is also said by Imam Sayyid Qutb in the Fii Zhilalil Quran.

Imam Athabari argues that the right thing is seriousness in completing an affair, then moving to another business, which is not determined. What is important is that the matter is an affair ordered by Allah تعالى. This is because it is in accordance with the generality of the verse.

According to Mu'jam al-Wasit, the word contained in the verse, "فَرَغَ ـ يَفْرُغُ ـ فَرَاغـا" means خَلا which is empty, and if it says "فَرَغَ مِنْ الشَيء" = أتَمَّهُ, which is perfecting it.

Thus, it can be understood that Islam commands us to do charity until it is truly complete, until it is truly 'empty' of something that needs to be done before it can be called a complete charity.

Focus

In addition to the above verse, there are also other words of Allah تعالahan which contain directives to not rush to move to other things:

وَلَا تَعۡجَلۡ بِٱلۡقُرۡءَانِ مِن قَبۡلِ أَن يُقۡضَىٰٓ إِلَيۡكَ وَحۡيُهُۥۖ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدۡنِي عِلۡمٗا ١١٤

"... and thou shalt not (Muhammad) hurry (read) the Koran before it has been revealed to you, and say," My Lord, add knowledge to me. "(QS: 20: 114).

Imam Tabari interpreted this verse as a prohibition on the Messenger of Allah  to rush to deliver the Koran to the Companions رضي الله عنهم before being perfectly explained.

This verse closes with the addition of knowledge prayer, showing the importance of focusing on learning until understanding and established standards are reached, before then teaching it to other parties.

It often happens in human life, the spirit has become weak before the charity is finished, so ignore the completion of the closing charity. This is illustrated in the hadith:

عن سالم مولى شداد قال دخلت على عائشة زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم توفي سعد بن أبي وقاص فدخل عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر فتوضأ عندها فقالت يا عبد الرحمن أسبغ الوضوء فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول ويل للأعقاب من النار

From Salim the former slave of Syaddad, he said, "I went to Aisha, the wife of the Prophet  on the day of the death of Sa'd bin Abu Waqqash. Then Abdurrahman bin Abu Bakr entered and performed ablution on his side, then Aisha said, 'O Abdurrahman, perfect your ablution, because I heard the Prophet da said: "Woe to the heels (which are not washed with wudlu) with hell fire." )

The Messenger of Allah  taught the importance of وَضْعُ اللَّمَسَةِ الأخِيْرَة, the finishing touch of the completion of a charity, because often people with ablutions, in the end are impatient to move on to other matters. Hurry so negligent in perfecting the washing of the heels properly.

This hadith also touches on the nature of most people, who rush to leave charity before it is finished.

Finishing touch is a very important thing in a charity. A house, although built with super class building materials, is a good architectural design, but if the painting is not complete or careless, then the house cannot be enjoyed as a good quality home. That is charity.
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